Ravaging SARS-CoV-2: Rudimentary Diagnosis and Puzzling Immunological Responses
Current Medical Research and Opinion
Mukherjee T.K., Malik P., Maitra R. & Hoidal J.R.
Introduction: In December 2019, the first COVID-19 case, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in Wuhan, China. The SARS-CoV-2 rapidly disseminated throughout the world via community spread, acquiring pandemic status with significant fatality.
Observations: Rapid SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was soon perceived critical for arresting community spread and effective therapy development. Human SARS-CoV-2 infection can be diagnosed either by nucleic acid identification or specific antibody detection. Contrary to nucleic acid identification confirmed active SARS-CoV-2 infection; antibody detection confirms a past infection, even in asymptomatic subjects. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies augment the ability to effectively counter the virus. A crucial hurdle limiting the steadfast implementation of antibody detection is the time required for threshold B lymphocyte population generation. This process is dependent on precise antigen recognition and MHC class I molecules presentation.
Conclusions: Thus, nucleic acid and antibody dependent tests complement each other in identifying human SARS-CoV-2 infection and shaping up subsequent immunological responses. This article discusses the complimentary association of nucleic acid identification (corresponding to an active infection) and antibody testing (the yester CoV-2 infection vulnerability) as the diagnostic and screening measures of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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