Comparison of a Prototype SARS-CoV-2 Lateral Flow IMMUNOASSAY with the BinaxNOWTM COVID-19 Antigen CARD
Hill H.J., Uppal T., Hau D., Pandit S.G., Arias-Umana J., Foster A.J., Gorzalski A., Pflughoeft K.J., Burnham-Marusich A.R., Reed D.E., Gates-Hollingsworth M.A., Gumbleton L., Verma S.C. & AuCoin D.P.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the onset of the pandemic, rapid antigen tests have quickly proved themselves to be an accurate and accessible diagnostic platform. The initial (and still most commonly used antigen tests) for COVID-19 diagnosis were constructed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein (NP). These mAbs are able to bind SARS-CoV-2 NP due to high homology between the two viruses. However, since first being identified in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has continuously mutated, and a multitude of variants have appeared. These mutations have an elevated risk of leading to possible diagnostic escape when using tests produced with SARS-CoV-derived mAbs. Here, we established a library of 18 mAbs specific to SARS-CoV-2 NP and used two of these mAbs (1CV7 and 1CV14) to generate a prototype antigen-detection lateral flow immunoassay (LFI). A side-by-side analysis of the 1CV7/1CV14 LFI and the commercially available BinaxNOWTM COVID-19 Antigen CARD was performed. Results indicated the 1CV7/1CV14 LFI outperformed the BinaxNOWTM test in the detection of BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.5 Omicron sub-variants when testing remnant RT-PCR positive patient nasopharyngeal swabs diluted in viral transport media.
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